LLR Books

Francis Maguire

An Irish adventurer, he came to Jamestown, Virginia in 1607 remained about one year. He wrote an account of his visit and submitted it to the Spanish Council of State. 

Kinsale, Virginia

Founded by Irish settlers from Cork in 1662.

Ted O'Hara

 Born in Danville, Kentucky, on February 11, 1822. The son of an Irish political exile, who became a prominent educator in Kentucky, O'Hara graduated from St. Joseph's College, Bardstown, Kentucky, studied law. During the war with Mexico he attained the rank of brevet major. He also led several expeditions to Cuba and Central America. He edited various newspapers and was successfully served in several diplomatic missions. During the Civil War he served as a staff-officer to General Breckenridge. He wrote little of special merit besides the two poems, "The Bivouac of the Dead" and "A Dirge for the Brave Old Pioneer". The former was written when the State of Kentucky brought back the remains of her sons who had fallen in the Mexican War to the cemetery at Frankfort. The last four lines of the opening stanza are inscribed over the entrance to the National Cemetery at Arlington, Virginia 

John Sullivan

Sullivan and his brother Cornelius were listed as settlers, in Virginia land records in 1635. Cornelius possessed of considerable property, died in 1672

Daniel Sullivan

Of Cork, Ireland, Sullivan settled in Nansemond County, Virginia, in 1690. Sullivan was elected to the House of Burgesses. His descendants, who spelled the name Sullivant, were pioneers in the settlement of Ohio.

Free School

In 1870 Baltimore Irish could boast of its own Irish free School.

A detachment of colored Odd Fellows

“A detachment of colored Odd Fellows passed through Swamp-poodle yesterday afternoon on their return from a funeral when a number of white roughs commenced stoning the procession. The colored men broke ranks, returned the fire, and for a time a regular pitched battle was in progress. As far as is known, no one on either side was injured”   Newspaper story, September 10, 1881

Robert Pollock

 An immigrant from Donegal, Ireland, he arrived in Maryland in 1672. Their son, William, who shortened his name to Polk, was the great-grandfather of President James K. Polk.

James Patton

Of Derry, Ireland, in1736, he received a grant of land west of the Blue Ridge Mountains in Augusta County, Virginia, which was settled largely through his efforts. He was killed by Indians in 1755.

Helen Hayes

Helen Hayes was born in Washington D.C. on October 10, 1900. Her mother, Catherine Estelle (née Hayes), or Essie, was an aspiring actress who worked in touring companies. Her father worked at a number of jobs, including as a clerk at the Washington Patent Office and as a manager and salesman for a wholesale butcher. Hayes' Irish Catholic maternal grandparents immigrated from Ireland during the Irish Potato Famine; her mother was a great-niece of Irish singer Catherine Hayes.
Hayes began a stage career at an early age. She said her stage debut was a 5-year old singer at Washington's Belasco Theatre (on Lafayette Square, across from the White House.By the age of ten, she had made a short film called Jean and the Calico Doll, but only moved to Hollywood when her husband, playwright Charles MacArthur, signed a Hollywood deal. She attended the Academy of the Sacred Heart Convent in Washington and graduated in 1917

John Daly Burk

Noted author of a four-volume History of Virginia was political protege of Thomas Jefferson.

John White s Fourth Voyage to Virginia

During Captain John White s Fourth Voyage to Virginia "two Irishmen, Darbie Glaven and Dennis Carrell" were put ashore on St. John (Virgin Islands) in 1587 to collect supplies and fill water barrels. For some unrecorded reason they were left behind when the ships sailed and vanished.

General Philip H. Sheridan

 A General in the Union Army during the the Civil War, Sheridan claimed he was born in Albany New York,  the third child of six by John and Mary Meenagh Sheridan, immigrants from the parish of Killinkere, County Cavan Irland. Sheridan, who grew up in Ohio,  was only 5 feet 5 inches.  A hard drinking, hard living Irishman, he died of heart attack  at age 57. He is buried in Arlington. Sheridan Circle in DC is named for him.

Charles Lynch

Son of Virginia’s Colonel Charles Lynch, (Lynch laws) also served as governor of Louisiana. 

Andrew Meade

Of Kerry, Ireland, he settled in Nansemond County, Virginia, 1690, and later became a burgess, judge, and colonel of militia. Among his descendants was General George Meade 

Stephen Horgan

A Virginian, Horgan came up with the idea of developing a process for newspapers to reproduce clear photographs on to paper by converting black and white photographs in to half tone shots. The basic process is still used today in the newspaper industry.

Thomas Fortune Ryan

 In transportation, the Irish worked both sides of the track. On the management side, Thomas Fortune Ryan would eventually gain control of New York cities transportation lines to add to his tobacco, banking, insuance, railroad, rubber and mining monopolies that he con¬trolled across the globe.Ryan, who traced his ancestry to Protestant Anglo-Irish settlers in the 17th century,  was born on October 17, 1851 near Lovingston, a small Nelson County community south of Charlottesville in Virginia's Piedmont. At age 17, Ryan moved to Baltimore, (He converted to Catholicism after long discussions with a fellow passenger on the train) and went tow work with Irishman  John S. Barry, a prosperous dry goods merchant. (He married Barry’s daughter)  In 1872, Barry helped Ryan secure a brokerage assistant position on Wall Street where he would be tutored by William Collins Whitney.

Hartford and Cecil Counties, Maryland

In 1680 Hartford and Cecil Counties, Maryland and part of Newcastle County, Delaware were deeded to George Talbot and settled by Irish immigrants.


 In the narrative of the voyage of the Jesuit Father Andrew White aboard the "Dove and "Ark" from England to Maryland in 1633 in Lord Baltimore's expedition, White wrote that on the way to Maryland, the ship put in at Monserrat (one of the smallest of the Caribbean Islands) where they found a colony of Irishmen "who had been banished from Virginia on account of professing the Catholic Faith"  White, John Campbell. Dr: White Belfast in 1798. He was elected first president of The Benevolent Hibernian Society of Baltimore. 

Richard Montgomery

 General Richard Montgomery of Raphoe, Ireland was already and officer in the British Army at age 18. He rose through the ranks to become a Brigadier General at age 33, in the Colonial Army.  Handsome, tough and gallant, Montgomery swept his colonial army through Canada with his second in Command Aaron Burr, stopping his force within a days march of British held Quebec.  A days before he was to take the city, a British sharp shooter ended his brilliant career and life with a single shot through the heart. His death was mourned on both sides of the Atlantic, in America, as the tragic end of a noble military man and in England as the tragic loss of a Patriot gone wrong.

James McSherry

(1819-1869) Born at LibertyTown, (Frederick) Maryland. McSherry was the son of James McSherry and Anne Ridgely Sappington, and the grandson of Patrick McSherry, who came from Ireland in 1745 to Lancaster County, Pennsylvania and later to moved Maryland. He graduated from Mount St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg , Maryland, in l838 and was admitted to the bar in l840. His eldest, James, became chief justice of Maryland. McSherry is best known for his "History of Maryland"

Arthur Henry McArdle

Born in Belfast, Ireland of French and Irish parents. He began the study of art under the French artist Sauveur. At fourteen, his parents having died, and he immigrated to America with an aunt, and settled in Baltimore, Maryland. He studied with David A. Woodward at the Maryland Institute for the Promotion of Mechanic Arts, and in 1860 won the Peabody Prize. During the Civil War he was a draftsman for the Confederate Navy, and later made topographical maps for Gen. Robert E. Lee. After the war McArdle married and eventually settled in Independence, Texas, where he taught art at Baylor Female College for many years. He worked with men of Hood's Texas Brigade on the historical canvas Lee at the Wilderness (1869-70) and became interested in Texas history. He won a commission to paint a full-length portrait of Jefferson Davis (1890) for the Capitol as well as several portraits of Sam Houston, and other notables, and stirring battle scenes. (Dawn at the Alamo (1876-1905) The Battle of San Jacinto (completed 1898), which hang in the Senate Chamber in the Texas Capitol) Sam Houston (1902) and The Settlement of Austin's Colony (1875), which hangs in the hall of the House of Representatives in the Texas Capitol. In later years he suffered from financial hardships, McArdle died in San Antonio on February 16, 1908. Nineteen years after his death, the legislature of Texas paid his heirs $25,000 for Dawn at the Alamo and The Battle of San Jacinto. 

Mayres Ridge

In December of 1862, the Union marched 122,000 troops in to Fredericksburg under the command of the incompetent General Burnside who held command of the Fighting 69th regiment. At midmorning Burnside ordered General Thomas Meagher to his command post and ordered Meaghers Irishmen to flush the confederate sharpshooters from an impregnable position called Mayres ridge and from the few houses that surrounded it. Burnside was specific in his orders.
The Irishmen were to make a frontal assault on the position. The Brigade attacked the position twenty times and was pushed back each time until five regiments of men were reduced to 200 wounded souls. Burnside suicide order cost him his command.
 Robert E. Lee wrote "Never were men so brave. They ennobled their race by their splendid gallantry on that desperate occasion. through totally routed, they reaped the harvest of glory. Their brilliant, though hopeless assaults on our lines excited the hearty applause of our officers and soldiers .
The highest compliment for their bravery, oddly enough, came from a war correspondent for the London Times. "After witnessing the gallantry and devotion exhibited by these men, viewing the hillsides for acres strewn with their corpses thick as autumn leaves, this spectator can remember nothing but their desperate courage. Their bodies fell but 40 yards of their object, the best evidence of what manner of men they were who pressed on to death with the dauntlessness of a race which was gained glory on a thousand battlefields, and never more richly deserved it then at the foot of Mayres ridge on the 13th day of December, 1862" 

Fair Oaks

 At the Battle of Fair Oaks, (Henrico County Virginia) the Unions lines retreated in disarray and confusion. Entire regiments turned and ran from the poorly armed, but better organized Confederates. In an effort to stop the retreat General Edwin Sumner rode up to the New York fighting 69th and "In what was probably the only speech of his life" as his aid put it and bellowed "You Irishmen are our last hope.if you fail, we are lost.but I'll go my stars on you boys, I want to see how Irishmen fight, and when you run, by God, I'll run too!" "They responded with a hearty cheer,” wrote Captain Field of the US Artillery "the Irish moved into position with the air of men who were going to stay. A fresh crash (of cannon fire) showed when the struck at the enemy. For a few minutes the fire was deafening then it began to retire. The yells gave way to long continuous cheers, an aid galloped up to order a section of artillery to follow the advancing line of Irishmen the battle of Fair Oaks was won. It was an inspiriting opening of a heroic history and from that day on General Sumner swore by "his Irishmen" 

Robert Kelly

To Hollywood and most of the rest of the world it was John Kennedy's exploits in the South Pacific aboard his ill fated PT boat 109 that brought the tiny motor Torpedo boat to national attention, however to scores of war buffs the true hero of the south Pacific PT action was New York born Irish American named Robert B. Kelly. Captain Kelly was the executive officer of the now famed PT boat squadron 3.
It was Kelly, who lived most of his life around the DC area,  and his men who risked life and limb to evacuate Douglas MacArthur, his family and Staff from the Japanese Navy infested waters of Corregidor Island in the dark of night. Kelly was awarded the Silver Star for his bravery and was given command of squadron 3 which included Lt. J.G John Kennedy.
Shortly after taking command, Kelly was again cited for bravery in action and awarded a second silver star and still later the Navy Cross for heroism in combat when his PT boat attacked and sank a Japanese light cruiser that had been protecting four other enemy destroyers. Kelly managed to sink the cruiser with two torpedos from a firing range of 300 feet. The following morning, with only one of his four guns working, five dead crewmen, and taking in water from a six foot hole in his hull from a Japanese shell, Kelly managed to fight off attacks by enemy dive bombers, eventually bringing his remaining crew back to safety. His dare devil actions brought home a few bright moments to a war weary American public. Kelly's action were later made in to the film "They Were Expendable" starring John Wayne 

James Fair

 Senator James Fair of Nevada arrived in Washington as a newly elected member of the Senate in 1880 and with him began the long tradition of this cities big name, big dollar scandals.  A humorless, egotistical man, Fair was one of the four Irishmen to stick it rich in the mines of Nevada in March of 1873.   Fair and his Partners, by the way, were financed in their efforts to strike Gold by a Northern Virginia Irishmen named James Walker who called their new venture The Virginia Mining Company.    For some reason Walker later sold his share of the company to the others for the paltry sum of $100,000.00 dollars and returned home to Virginia. The mine that the Virginia company hit would eventually deliver in access of 190,000,000.00 dollars in Gold, Silver and other precious metals.   Armed with his new fortune Fair and his wife, and their three daughters crashed the gates of polite east coast society in the early 1880's. 
 A short time later, at his wife's behest for a permanent social position Fair ran for, and won the Senate seat from Nevada.  But Fair quickly tired of the slow pace of the Senate and busied himself with the cities Nightlife. In fact he busied himself enough with it that three years after his arrival to Washington, his wife filed for divorce on the then almost unheard of and scandalous grounds of Habitual Adultery giving Fair the odd distinction of being first member of Congress to be charged on those grounds.  
The jury agreed with Mrs Fair and awarded her a settlement of  five million dollars, which was, for years, the largest divorce settlement in the history of the United States.  Even so, the award was only a mere fraction of Fairs estate which included forty million dollars in cash, two railroads, a bank, and several thousand rentable properties across the country that netted him $250,000.00 a month.   When he died in 1894 leaving no less then 12 Women claiming to have been his lawfully wedded wife.  "The Blarney of his race" wrote the San Francisco Chronicle "had not been omitted from his makeup, when it suited his purpose, his compliments could charm a robin off a fence." 
 Fairs presence in Washington as an outrageously rich and lucky Irishmen was soon filled by Thomas F. Walsh who had also struck it rich in the now famous Motherlode in Colorado in 1896.   Walsh moved to Washington in 1903 and built his outrageous Mansion at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue N.W,  with its 60 rooms for the then on heard of price of $835,000.00 dollars, or roughly 80 million times the average Washingtonians salary at that time. The mansion now houses the Indonesian Embassy. Walsh's daughter, Evelyn, married Washington Post owner Edward Beale Mclean and moved to his no less conspicuous estate called McLean gardens which covered most of upper Wisconsin Avenue and included a private zoo.

Col. John Fitzgerald

A native of Wicklow, Ireland, he served as staff officer under General Washington. The marker above is found in Old Town Alexandria

Daniel Dulany

(1685 1753), Born in Ireland, Dulany arrived in Maryland as an indentured servant in 1703. After gaining his freedom, he won admission to the Maryland bar (1710) and eventually became a judge, attorney general of the province, a member of the legislature (1722 -1742) and of the Governor s Council (1742 -1753) He championed the Colonial cause in his pamphlet "The Rights of the Inhabitants of Maryland to the Benefit of English Laws" (1728). His son, Daniel (1722 1797), was secretary of the province of Maryland (1761 1774) and a leading opponent of the Stamp Act. 

The Carrolls


Of the early Colonial settlers, perhaps none is more impressive then the Fabulous Carrol's of Maryland. Wealthy even in Europe, the Carrol's arrived in the American Colonies under the patronage of King James the Second. The prospered quickly and became one of Marylands original 18 land owning families as well as one of the largest real estate holders in the new world. They named most of their properties with the same name they had held in Ireland.
Charles Carrol was not only Maryland's delegate to the Constitutional Convention to sign the Declaration of Independence, he was also its only Catholic signature and the last to die, at age 92 in 1832.
Charles Carrol's Daughter, Mrs .Richard Caton, of Catonsville Maryland was the first Grand Dame of American society. Her three daughters, called the three Graces, became, respectively, the Duchess of Leeds, the Marchioness of Wellesy and the Baroness of Stafford.
Cousin David Carrol was a millionaire in his own right as well as Maryland's second largest land holder and was the States delegate to the first Constitutional Congress. His land holding by the way, included the grounds that the Capitol stands on today. And his home in Baltimore was said to be the finest in Colonial America.
John Carrol would become Americas and Baltimore's first Catholic Bishop. Included in his nationwide Domain were 50 Priests and 5 Nuns. An unabashed patriot, Bishop Carrol chastised his fellow Irish Americans for what he saw as their less then enthusiastic acceptance of the New Republic and implored them to sign written loyalty statements to the United States, an act he was widely critized for. During the war, he and Benjamin Franklin embarked on the dangerous and failed plan to recruit French Canadian Catholics into the Colonist cause for freedom.


 At the Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest day of the Civil war In eight hours 23,000 men would lay dead or wounded. Captain Edwin Field wrote:

 "It was their crowning glory (The Irishmen had forced the enemy back beyond a sunken road) which had been filled with corpses by an enfilading fire from one of our batter¬ies and presented one of the most ghastly spectacles of war.

Using this lane as a breastwork, they held it to the close of the fight, losing not a prisoner, having not one straggler, but at a loss of life that was appalling.

One Irish regiment lost nearly 50% of it men, another over thirty per cent. the rebels seemed to have a special spite against the green flag, and five color bearers were shot down successively in a short time.
As the last man fell even these Irishmen hesitated a moment to assume a task synonymous with death.

"Big Gleason" Captain of the sixty third, six feet seven, sprang forward and snatched it up. In a few minutes a bullet struck the staff, shattering it to pieces; Gleason tore the flag from the broken staff, wrapped it around his body, putting his sword belt over it, and went through the rest of the fight untouched. At the brow of the hill the fighting was the severest and most deadly ever witnessed before, so acknowledged by veterans in the service.

Men on both sides fell in large numbers and those who were eye witness to the struggle did not think it possible for a single man to escape. The enemy here first, were concealed behind a knoll, so that only their heads were exposed. The brigade advanced up the hill with a cheer, when a most deadly fire was poured in by a second line of the enemy con¬cealed in the Sharpsb¬urg road, which at this place is several feet lower than the surrounding sur¬face, forming a complete rifle pit and also from a force partially concealed still further to the rear.

The line of the brigade, in its advance up the hill, was broken in the center temporarily by an obstruction the right wing having advanced to keep up with the colors, and fell back a short distance, when General Meagher directed that a rail fence - which the enemy only a few minutes before had been fighting behind- be torn down.

His men, in the face of a galling fire, obeyed the order, when the whole brigade advanced to the brow of the hill, cheering as they went, and causing the enemy to fall back to their second line- which is some three feet lower than the surrounding surface. In this road were massed a large force of infantry and here was the most hotly contested point of the day.

Each brigade of this division was brought into action at this point, and the struggle was truly terrific for more than four hours-the enemy finally however, were forced from their position. The Brigade suffered terribly. General Meagher horse was shot out from under him, and a bullet passed through his clothes. The sixty third regiment of this brigade, always conspic¬uous for deeds of daring in battle, was particu¬larly so in the battle of Antietam.

The colors were shot down sixteen times and on each occasion a man was ready to spring forward and place the colors in front. John Hartigan, a member of company H, and only 16 years old, went some distance in advance of the regiment with the colors and waved them defiant¬ly in the face of the enemy. The whole Brigade gave a cheer that was heard along the lines for a mile, when it advanced up the rising ground and drove the enemy from a strong position"


Swampoodle (It was actually called swamp-puddle and became swamp-poodle and is now written as a one word)  was a small section of the city that was mostly behind the Union Station along the H Street neighborhood in Northeast D.C. and was home, in the 1850s, to mostly famine Irish immigrants fleeing.

The actual borders would have been  K Street to the north, G Street to the south, 1st Street NW to the west, and 2nd Street NE to the east. Its center was  just east of North Capitol Street, where a large branch of the  Tiber Creek ran, creating the low swampy ground from which the area took its name.  The name appeared in print when a reporter covering the dedication of St. Aloysius Church in 159, (Then at North Capitol and I streets) noted  that the area around the church was dotted with "swamps and puddles

At the very far end of the neighborhood was  Schott's Alley which was in back of where the new Russell Senate Office Building is today. The alley was home to 220 people, most of them fruit vendors. On the walls of  one shack that housed a restaurant, the owner regularly painted his thoughts  about current events on the outside walls.

Swampoodle, its main street was a place called Jackson's alley, which was actually a large wide street, was little more than a rough, shanty town that housed the citys poorest day laborers. Sstreet gangs were a problem, with the Irish gang being led by a fellow named Doggie McGraw.  Most of the homes were  dilapidated brick or wood dwellings built in a hurry to house emancipated slaves after the Civil War. Almost all of the houses had dirt floors, no water, heat or lights and sewers didn’t run into that part of the city. Usually two or families shared a house that was no more than four rooms. 

A local doctor who took congressmen on tours of the alleys  in efort to clean the area up. Along the way, he flung open an  outhouse door and said "Gentlemen, these flies are the same ones that come in your open window and land on your sandwich while you're having lunch on Capitol Hill"
It was said to be a hot-bed of Secessionist sentiment during the civil war and it probably didn’t help that the federal government took their church.

Swampoodle was one of the citys precincts, the others were The Navy Yard, Capital Hill, the Northern Liberties and an area called The Islands. Swampoodle's resident political boss was a man named TC Murray.

On September 9, 1862, three years after St. Aloysius was built on the edge of swampoodle, the District of Columbia’s military governor made a requisition to use the church as a military hospital. The pastor in charge, a  Father Wiget offered to build a hospital on K Street just north of the church. The 250-bed hospital was constructed by parishioners in only eight days.  In appreciation, the hospital was named St. Aloysius to honor the Church.

 Swampoodle was the home of the Swampoodle Grounds, (or Swampoodle park or Capital Park Grounds ) home of the Washington Statesmens baseball club from 1886 to 1889. (The team folded that year, they finished last place three times in four seasons) The park could hold up to 6,000 spectators and had a tower in the outfield that was about 20 feet high.  The team was part of the National League.  The right field and the infield are now part of Union Station and the far left field is now under the Main Post Office and Columbus Circle.

In 1869, Irish immigrant Thomas Allen lived in a wood-frame house at 316 H St. NE, which he built of wood.(Woood-frame structures were banned in 1874 in the District to make way for sturdier, metal frame and brick structures.)  The chairman of the Stanton Park Historical Preservation Society said "Timothy Allen was one of those immigrants, who built his home at 316 H Street, first as a residence and later using the lower level as a grocery store while continuing to live upstairs"

Some of the boys from Swampoodle did well for themselves. There was the writers Bob Considine and Vincent Flathery and Thomas Aquinas Flannery, who served for more than 30 years as a U.S. District Court judge in Washington. He was appointed to the bench in 1971 by President Richard M. Nixon and over saw several major cases. A Gonzaga graduate (He grew up less than a block away from the school) The son of a carpenter graduated in 1940 from Columbus University Law School, now part of Catholic University.
Gonzaga College High School, (The nearby church, St. Aloysius and the school are named for St. Aloysius Gonzaga.) a legacy of the areas Irish settlers (So is the train station, since they built it. 

When it was built, 1907,  the Station covered more ground than any other building in the United States and was the largest train station in the world. )  was chartered by Congress in 1858,  as a college empowered to confer degrees in the arts and sciences. (Its real name is Gonzaga College, Gonzaga no longer confers degrees, other than honorary doctoral degrees presented to commencement speakers) The school moved into the swamppoodle area , where it stands today, in 1871.  Gonzaga benefited  from Irish who lived in the dozens upon dozens of  row houses  in Swampoodle. Gonzaga is the oldest educational facility in the original federal city of Washington.

For twenty years, the school was led by Father Bernard J. Dooley who helped it rebound after the 1968 riots almost closed the school down.  Dooley, a chain smoking , urbane Jesuit was assigned to the school in 1974, when enrollment had dropped to less than 400 and the school was in danger of closing. Three years later, he had built a gymnasium, the first construction in the neighborhood near Union Station since the 1968 riots. In 1988, he brought Nobel Peace Prize winner Mother Teresa to the school's graduation ceremony, where she gave out the diplomas.

The Union Station proposal was part of a bill to expand the Capitol grounds by purchasing the six blocks between the Capitol and the station. That move more or less ended the live of swampoodle. Oddly enough the Lincoln Memorial was almost buillt there before another location was found for it. 
There are two other palces in the metro area known as swamp poodle. Swampoodle is also the name of a village a mile east of Hamilton, on old Route 7 in Loudoun County.  The town of  “Swamp”  today  known as  Belvoir, was  a village midway between The Plains and Marshall. The area in low land and took on the name that way.

Benjamin O'Rear

The village of Scuffleburg Virginia (Its in Fauquier County) was home to Benjamin O'Rear, who locals claim invented the threshing machine about 1825. He failed to patent it.

English Hill

Just northeast of what is today Judiciary Square was an area known as English Hill, (Sometime before 1820, an English family named Cook owned, most of the property, hence the name) Oddly enough, most of residents of English were Irish but it wasn’t called Irish Hill because just south of the square was another area called Irish Hill in what is now the neighborhood between 3d,  F and G streets NW.  The Irish neighborhood was busted apart when tens of dozens of row houses were built in the area and housed the likes of Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun.